Learn more about the AHA's vision of a world where no one dies of cardiac arrest.
Why Is CPR Important?
Chain of Survival
CPR is a critical step in the AHA’s Chain of Survival. The term Chain of Survival provides a useful metaphor for the elements of the ECC systems concept.
The 5 links in the adult out-of-hospital Chain of Survival are:
- Recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system (calling 9-1-1 in the US)
- Early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions
- Rapid defibrillation
- Basic and advanced emergency medical services
- Advanced life support and post-cardiac arrest care
A strong Chain of Survival can improve chances of survival and recovery for victims of cardiac arrest.
About Automated External Defibrillators (AED)
Learn more about how the use of AEDs can dramatically boost survival of cardiac arrest patients.
How CPR Is Performed?
- For healthcare providers and those trained: conventional CPR using chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth breathing at a ratio of 30:2 compressions-to-breaths. In adult victims of cardiac arrest, it is reasonable for rescuers to perform chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120/min and to a depth of at least 2 inches (5 cm) for an average adult, while avoiding excessive chest compression depths (greater than 2.4 inches [6 cm]).
- For the general public or bystanders who witness an adult suddenly collapse: compression-only CPR, or Hands-Only CPR. Hands-Only CPR is CPR without mouth-to-mouth breaths. It is recommended for use by people who see a teen or adult suddenly collapse in an out-of-hospital setting (such as at home, at work, or in a park).
1. Call 9-1-1 (or send someone to do that)
2. Push hard and fast in the center of the chest
About High-Quality CPR
- Minimize interruptions in chest compressions
- Provide compressions of adequate rate and depth
- Avoid leaning on the victim between compressions
- Ensure proper hand placement
- Avoid excessive ventilation
Even Children Can Perform Successful CPR
A recent study tested sixth graders and their capacity to use Hands-Only CPR to save lives. The study found that the majority of children could perform CPR in the correct location and at the appropriate compression rate, making this a viable group to train to help save lives.
In fact, the AHA is dedicated to training the next generation of lifesavers through its CPR in Schools program. We led the charge to make CPR training a high school graduation requirement in 34 states – and counting! Learn more and get resources and training kits designed specifically for schools.
For a visual comparison of Hands-Only CPR vs. Conventional CPR, view the CPR Guide Infographic.
The Gender Difference: Men vs. Women
According to a study released by the Resuscitation Science Symposium, men are more likely to receive bystander CPR in public locations compared to women.
- Women and men receive similar CPR assistance within the home, but in public 45 percent of men received assistance compared to only 39 percent of women.
- Men were 1.23 times more likely to receive bystander CPR in public, and their chance of survival was 23 percent higher compared to women.
So why the discrepancy? It could come down to anatomy and a bystander being comfortable enough to perform CPR on a woman. View the rest of the story in this short video released at Scientific Sessions.
Heart Attack vs. Cardiac Arrest: The Difference You Should Know
Find A Course
If you are interested in taking a course to learn the lifesaving skills of CPR, first aid, and AED, use the Find A Course Tool to locate a Training Center near you.
Try a Blended Learning Course: Many AHA lifesaving training courses are available online via OnlineAHA and eLearning.Heart.org. Courses that involve only cognitive learning can be completed entirely online. For courses that teach CPR, students must complete an in-person skills practice and testing session with an AHA Instructor after they complete the online portion. The Instructor will evaluate the student's skills and upon successful completion of both portions of the course, the student will receive a course completion card, valid for two years. See more information on blended learning and eLearning training.